Middle Level Curriculum & Instruction

7.1. Communication
7.2. Mathematics
7.3. Science
​7.4. Technology
​7.5. Social Sciences
​7.6. Medical Science/Health
​7.7. Social Learning Standards and Expectations
​7.8. Foreign Language
​7.9 Citizenship  

7.1. Communication

Students at this level will present and critique dramatic readings of literary selections and will continue to develop proficiency in making planned oral presentations. Knowledge of literary terms and forms will be applied in the student's own writing and in the analysis of literature. Students will be introduced to significant literary works from a variety of cultures and eras, from 1000 A.D. to the present. Increased requirements for research and reporting in all subjects are supported by the use of electronic databases and a standard style sheet method to cite reference sources. Writing will encompass narrative, literary, expository, and technical forms, with particular attention to analysis, comparison, critique, and evaluation.

7.1.1. Oral Language

The student will present and critique dramatic readings of literary selections.

· Choose literary form for presentation, such as poems, monologues, scenes from plays, or stories.
· Adapt presentation techniques to fit literary form.
· Use verbal and nonverbal techniques for presentation.
· Evaluate impact of presentation.

The student will make planned oral presentations.

· Include definitions to increase clarity.
· Use relevant details to support main ideas.
· Illustrate main ideas through anecdotes and examples
· Cite information sources.
· Make impromptu responses to questions about presentation.

7.1.2. Reading and Literature

The student will read and analyze a variety of literature.

· Identify the characteristics that distinguish literary forms.
· Use literary terms in describing and analyzing selections.
· Explain the relationships between and among elements of literature: Character, plot, setting, tone, point of view, and theme.
· Explain the relationship between author's style and literary effect.
· Describe the use of images and sounds to elicit the reader's emotions.
· Explain the influence of historical context on the form, style, and perspective of a written work.

The student will read and analyze a variety of print materials.

· Identify a hypothesis to be confirmed, disproved, or modified.
· Evaluate clarity and accuracy of information.
· Synthesize information from sources and apply it in written and oral presentations.
· Identify questions not answered by a selected text.
· Extend general and specialized vocabulary through reading and writing.

The student will read dramatic selections.

· Identify the two basic parts of drama.
· Compare and contrast the elements of character, setting, and plot in one-act plays and full-length plays.
· Describe how stage directions help the reader understand a play's setting, mood, characters, plot, and theme.

7.1.3. Writing

The student will develop narrative, literary, expository, and technical writings to inform, explain, analyze, or entertain.

· Plan and organize writing.
· Communicate clearly the purpose of the writing.
· Write clear, varied sentences.
· Use specific vocabulary and information.
· Arrange paragraphs into a logical progression.
· Revise writing for clarity.
· Edit final copies for correct use of language, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization.
The following standards outline the content for a course in Algebra I. All students are expected to achieve the Algebra I standards. Students should be helped to make connections and to build relationships between algebra and arithmetic, geometry, and probability and statistics. Connections also should be made to other content areas through practical applications. This approach should help students attach meaning to the abstract concepts of algebra. Throughout the learning experience, students should be encouraged to talk about mathematics, to use the language and symbols of mathematics to communicate, to discuss problems and problem solving and to develop their confidence in mathematics.

· The student will solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, solve formulas for a given variable and apply these skills to solve practical problems.

· The student will represent verbal quantitative situations algebraically and evaluate these expressions for given replacement values of the variables. Students will choose an appropriate computational technique, such as mental mathematics, calculator, or paper and pencil.

· The student will justify steps used in simplifying expressions and solving equations and inequalities. Justifications will include the use of concrete objects, pictorial representations, and properties of real numbers.

· The student will use matrices to organize and manipulate data. Data will be drawn from business, industrial, consumer, or school related situations.

· The student will graph linear equations by plotting points or by using slope and y-intercepts.

· The student will graph integers, and graph inequalities on a number line.

· The student will define variables and write equations for verbal problems and solve equations with one or more variables.

· The student will be able to solve proportions, solve percent problems, solve word problems, and solve inequalities.

· The student will use the order of operations to evaluate expressions and to multiply polynomials, factor polynomials.

· The student will apply the laws of exponents to perform operations on expressions with integral exponents, using scientific notation when appropriate.

· The student will estimate square roots to nearest tenth and use a calculator to compute decimal approximations of radicals.

· The student will solve quadratic equations in one variable algebraically.

· The student will analyze a relation to determine whether a direct or inverse variation exists and represent it algebraically.

7.3. Science

For students at this level, the Earth Science standards connect the study of the Earth's composition, structure, processes, and history. Earth's atmosphere, fresh water, and oceans, and its environment in space will also be a focus complimented by the Environmental Stewardship component and previously completed in-depth studies centered on Life Sciences and Physical Sciences. The standards place an emphasis on significant historical contributions in the evolution of scientific thought about the Earth and space. The standards emphasize the interpretation of maps, charts, tables, and profiles. Science skills in systematic investigation are stressed with the use of technology to collect, analyze, and report data. Problem solving and decision making are integral parts of the standards, particularly as they relate to the costs and benefits of utilizing the Earth's resources.

The student will plan and conduct investigations in which

· Volume, area, mass, elapsed time, direction, temperature, pressure, distance, density, and changes in elevation/depth are calculated utilizing the most appropriate tools;
· Technologies, including computers, are used to collect, analyze, and report data and may be used to demonstrate concepts and simulate experimental conditions;
· Scales, diagrams, maps, charts, graphs, tables, and profiles are constructed and interpreted;
· Variables are manipulated with repeated trial; and
· A scientific viewpoint is constructed and defended.

The student will demonstrate scientific reasoning and logic by

· Analyzing how science explains and predicts the interactions and dynamics of complex Earth systems;
· Recognizing that evidence is required to evaluate hypotheses and explanations;
· Comparing different scientific explanations for the same observations about the Earth;
· Explaining that observation and logic are essential for reaching a conclusion;
· Evaluating evidence for scientific theories related to plate tectonics, the structure of the Earth, and its ancient age and origin; and
· Making informed judgments related to resource use and its effects on Earth systems.

The student will investigate and understand how to read and interpret maps, globes, models, charts, and imagery.

· Maps (geologic, topographic, weather and star charts);
· Imagery (aerial photography and satellite images);
· Direction and distance measurements on any map or globe; and
· Location by latitude and longitude and topographic profiles.

The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth including

· Plate tectonics;
· Position of the earth in the solar system;
· Effects of density changes and energy transfer on the atmosphere, oceans, and earth's interior.

The student will investigate and understand how to identify major rock formations and ore minerals based on physical and chemical properties.

The student will investigate and understand how to identify common rock types based on mineral composition and textures and the rock cycle as it relates to the transformation of rock types.

· Igneous
· Sedimentary
· Metamorphic

The student will investigate and understand the differences between renewable and nonrenewable resources.

· Fossil fuels, mineral, rocks, water, and vegetation
· Advantages and disadvantages of various energy sources
· Resources found in Pennsylvania

The student will investigate and understand geologic processes including plate tectonics.

· How geological processes are evidences in the physiographic regions of Pennsylvania;
· Processes including faulting, folding, volcanism, metamorphism, weathering, erosion, deposition, and sedimentation and their resulting features;
· Processes including subduction, rifting, sea floor spreading and continental collision.

The student will investigate and understand how freshwater resources are influenced by geological process and the activities of humans.

The student will investigate and understand that many aspects of the history and evolution of the Earth and life can be inferred by studying rocks and fossils.

· Traces of ancient or extinct life are preserved in sedimentary rocks
· Methods for dating bodies of rocks
· Rocks and fossils from various geological epochs are found in Pennsylvania

The student will investigate and understand that oceans are complex, interactive physical, chemical, and biological systems and are subject to long and short term variations.

· Physical and chemical changes (tides, currents, ice cap variations, salinity concentrations)
· Interactions of weather, climate and energy transfer
· Features of the sea floor
· Policy issues concerning the oceans

The student will investigate and understand the evolution of the atmosphere and the interrelationship of geological, biological, and human activities.

· Scientific evidence for atmospheric changes over time
· Comparison of the earth's atmosphere to that of other planets

The student will investigate and understand that energy transfer among the sun, Earth, and the Earth's atmosphere drives weather and climate on Earth.

· Observation and collection of weather data
· Prediction of weather patterns
· Weather phenomena and the factors that affect climate

The student will investigate and understand the planets and other members of the solar system; the history and contributions of the space program, and concepts related to the origin and evolution of the solar system, galaxy, and universe.

7.4. Technology

Computer/technology skills are essential components of every student's education. In order to maximize opportunities for students to acquire necessary skills for academic success, the teaching of these skills should be the shared responsibility of teachers of all disciplines.

The student will communicate through application software.

· Compose and edit a multipage document at the keyboard, using word processing skills and the writing process steps
· Integrate databases, graphics and spreadsheets into word-processes documents

The student will process, store, retrieve, and transmit electronic information.

7.5. Social Sciences

Students at this level will cover history and geography from the late Middle Ages (1000 A.D.) to the present with emphasis on Western Europe. Geographic influences on history continue to be explored, but increasing attention is given to political boundaries that developed with the advent of nation-states. Particular attention will be given to the ways in which scientific and technological revolutions created new economic conditions that in turn produced social and political changes. The people and events of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries will be emphasized for their strong connections to contemporary issues. Students will develop competence in chronological thinking, historical comprehension, and historical analysis.

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the state of the world about 1000 A.D. by summarizing

· The institution of feudalism in Europe and the rise of towns and commerce
· The location and leadership of major Western European kingdoms
· The location and culture of the Byzantine and Muslim empires
· The location and culture of empires in India, China, Japan, sub- Saharan Africa, and Central America
· The role of the church of Europe
· The conflict between Christian and Muslim cultures
· Compare these cultures and events with events/cultures in Pennsylvania during the same historical frame

The student will analyze the patterns of social, economic, and political change and cultural achievement in the late Medieval period.

· The emergence of nation-states political developments in each
· Conflicts among Eurasian powers including the Crusades, the Mongol conquests, expansion of the Ottomans
· Patterns of crisis and recovery
· Preservation of Greek and Roman philosophy, medicine, and science

The student will analyze the historical developments of the Renaissance.

· Economic foundations
· Artistic, literary, and intellectual creativity contrasted with the Medieval period
· Theories of government

The student will analyze the historical developments of the Reformation.

· The evolution of laws that reflect religious beliefs, cultural values, traditions, and philosophies, including the beginnings of religious toleration and the spread of democracy.

The student will analyze the impact of European expansion into the Americas, Africa, and Asia.

The student will analyze the scientific, political, and economic changes of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, and people and ideas that influenced.

· Age of Absolutism
· Enlightenment
· Age of Reason

The student will analyze and explain the effects of the Industrial Revolution.

The student will analyze and explain major historical events of the 20th century.

· Causes and effects of WW I and WW II, and the Russian Revolution
· Totalitarian Regimes
· Impact of the World Wide Depression of the 1930's
· Holocaust and other example of genocide
· New Technologies
· Impact of power shifts since 1945
· Independence of African and Asian countries from colonial rule
· Regional and political conflicts in Korea and Vietnam
· Beginning and end of Cold War

The student will demonstrate skills in historical research and geographical analysis.

· Validating sources as to their authenticity, authority, credibility, and possible bias
· Identify and interpret primary and secondary sources and artifacts
· Construct various time lines of key events, periods, and personalities
· Identify the distribution of major religious cultures in the contemporary


7.6. Medical Science/Health
Each student will acquire and use the knowledge and skill necessary to promote individual and family health and wellness.

The student will list the ten organ systems of the body.

· Circulatory, respiratory, digestive, muscular, reproductive, nervous, skeletal, excretory, endocrine, and integumentary
· Display knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of all the systems
· Identify, comprehend, and use terminology in the study of the human body
· Gain a general understanding of diseases and disorders which commonly occur in the human body
· Show an appreciation of his/her own body and apply knowledge of the subject beyond the classroom

7.7. Social Learning Standards and Expectations

7.7.1. Environmental Stewardship

These standards emphasize a more complex understanding of change, cycles, patterns, and relationships in the living world. Students will build on basic principles and explore the dynamic relationships among organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems.

The student will investigate and understand that organisms within an ecosystem are dependent on one another and on nonliving components of the environment.

· Complex relationships in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems
· Energy flow in food chains, food webs, and food pyramids

The student will investigate and understand that interactions exist among members of a population.

· Competition, cooperation, social hierarchy, territorial imperative
· Influence of behavior on population interactions

The student will investigate and understand interactions among populations in biological community.

· Relationship among producers, consumers, and decomposers in food chains and food webs
· Relationship of predators and prey
· Role of parasites and host and other symbiotic relationships

The student will investigate and understand that ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms are dynamic and change over time.

· Student observations and data

The student will investigate and understand the relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

· Food production and harvest
· Change in habitat size, quality, and structure
· Population disturbances and factors that threaten and enhance species survival
· Environmental issues (water supply, air quality, energy production, and waste management)

7.8. Foreign Language
7.8.1. Spanish I

· Understand Spanish by responding orally and in writing to appropriate oral, written and visual stimuli
· Speak Spanish in everyday situations within the content scope of level I
· Read Spanish with direct comprehension what has been mastered audio-lingually
· Acquire an introductory knowledge regarding the life and customs of the Hispanic people, including a special in-depth study of Mexico
· Demonstrate knowledge of grammatical structures, such as: alphabet, pronunciation including vowels and diphthongs, regular and selected irregular verbs in the present tense, immediate future, subject pronouns, simple negative construction, definite and indefinite articles, selected adjectives, interrogatives and the personal "a"
· Understand, speak, read and write vocabulary learned from the text, such as: greetings and responses, months, dates, seasons, weather, time, numbers, classroom items, colors and family members.

7.8.2. Spanish II

· Review grammatical structures presented in level I
· Comprehend Spanish by answering orally or in writing to appropriate oral, written, or visual stimuli
· Speak with reasonable fluency within the content scope of levels I and II
· Read Spanish with direct comprehension what has been mastered audio-lingually
· Write Spanish from dictation, translation and write original dialogues within the scope of grammar and vocabulary of levels I and II
· Acquire a general knowledge of Hispanic culture as presented in the text and by the teacher
· Demonstrate knowledge of grammatical structures such as stem change verbs; reflexive verbs and pronouns; preterit and imperfect verb formation and use; possessive adjectives; demonstrative adjectives and pronouns; direct and indirect object pronouns; ordinal numbers; negative and interrogative construction
· Demonstrate the use of text vocabulary such as sports, pastimes, daily life, emotions and transportation.

7.8.3. Spanish III

· Attain increasing competence in understanding Spanish when spoken by a native at normal tempo on topics within the scope of levels I - II
· Develop increased proficiency in speaking Spanish correctly and with sufficient clarity to be understood by a native on topics within the scope of levels I - II
· Practice reading skills through the use of the short story La Guitarra Misteriosa and the cultural text to develop a better appreciation of the language and culture
· Improve writing skills through journal writing and class exercises, such as dialogues, short compositions and poems
· Develop an understanding of the formation and use of the future, conditional, commands, compound tenses and an introduction to the subjunctive mood.

7.8.4. Spanish IV

· Develop an increased competence in understanding Spanish when spoken by a native on general subjects
· Practice speaking with more competence in conversation, discussing reading selections and individual interests
· Read selected short stories and adaptations of literary selections
· Develop an increased competence in writing Spanish using free composition, summaries of literary selections and journal writing
· Demonstrate knowledge of all grammatical structures taught in levels I - II with a concentrated study of the subjunctive mood
· Develop a more in-depth understanding of the Hispanic people through study units on geography, history, literature and the arts of the Hispanic people.

7.9 Citizenship
Each student shall acquire and have opportunities to practice in the school and in the community, skills necessary for active, productive participation in civic life. Knowledge of individual rights and liberties underscores the responsibilities, civility, and consideration due to others. Particular stress is centered on criminal and civil law, and the juvenile justice system. Students are expected to honor and protect the rights of all within the school community and the community at large.

Students will become knowledgeable concerning his/her individual rights and liberties as well as those of other people by studying criminal and civil law.

· U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights as Supreme law of the land
· Impact of Supreme Court decisions on American society
· Pennsylvania Constitution
· Local laws, statutes, and ordinances

Study and learn the criminal and juvenile justice system.

· Nature and causes of crime, victims of crime, preliminary crimes, crimes against person, crimes against property, controversial crimes
· Criminal justice process
· Corrections and capital punishment
· Costs of crimes

Study and learn about civil law as it pertains to:

· Consumer protection
· Default and collection practices

Students will participate in a mock trial and be responsible for the following:

· Choose a "crime"
· Conduct and investigations, interrogations, arrest, seizures, and confessions as applicable
· Pre-trial proceedings
· Court room proceedings